Prostate Cancer Awareness Campaign | O.B. Lulu-Briggs Foundation

Prostate Cancer Awareness Campaign

Contents

Prostate Cancer symbol
Presenter & Researcher:
Dr. Blessing Etukakpan
Urologic  Surgeon

Contents

  1. What is the Prostate?
  2. What is Prostate Cancer?
  3. What Causes Prostate Cancer?
  4. What are the Symptoms?
  5. How Common is it?
  6. What are the Risk Factors?
  7. Can Prostate Cancer be Prevented?
    • Screening , Screening Limitations, Other Prostate Condition
    • Consequences of Delayed Detection and Presentation
  8. What Can You Do?
  9. Treatment Options

What is the Prostate?

What is the Prostate?

>   The prostate is an organ found only in men.

>   It is located in the lower abdomen (pelvis) below the bladder.

>   The prostate is part of the male reproductive system. It secretes a fluid that nourishes and protects sperm during ejaculation (discharging semen from the penis).

 

The Root of Cancer

>   Our bodies are made up of very tiny parts called cells. They are too small to see.

>   Cells work together to keep our bodies healthy and strong. Each cell has a specific job, like an employee in an office.

Cancer is a disease in which some cells in an organ stop functioning properly and hinder the healthy cells from doing their jobs. They grow out of control and do not die when they are supposed to like normal cells

The Prostate

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The Root of Cancer

the root of prostate cancer

What is Prostate Cancer?

What is Prostate Cancer?

>Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer cells begin to grow in the prostate.

>In some cases of prostate cancer, the cancer cell grow and spread quickly to other parts of the body. However, some prostate cancers grow very slowly.

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How Common is Prostate Cancer?

1.    Prostate Cancer is the cancer most diagnosed in Nigerian men. (Akinremi et al, 2014)

2.    It is the leading cause of cancer related death in men in Nigeria.

3.    It is the second-leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide.

Causes of Prostate Cancer

Causes of Prostate Cancer

>     The exact cause of prostate cancer is unknown.

>     Most likely, the cause is related to the changes in the genetic material (DNA) in our cells.

>     DNA is the record of instructions that “tells” our cells what to do.

>     Changes in DNA can be passed down through families, or can occur due to environment/lifestyle.

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Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

>   Pain while you urinate and/or ejaculate

>   Urgency to urinate, especially at night

>   Trouble starting or stopping urination

>   Blood in your urine or semen

>   Pelvic pain

>   Low back pain

>   Erectile dysfunction

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Prostate Cancer Risk Factors

Age

>    Risk increases with age. More than half of men that get prostate cancer are over 65.

Family History

>    Having a brother or father with prostate cancer doubles your risk.

>    However, most men that get prostate cancer do not have it in their family.

Race

>    Black men are at higher risk than white men or men of other races. The reason is unknown.

>    Black men are also more likely to receive a late diagnosis.

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Hormones

>   Genes: Some inherited genes may increase risk.

Poor Diet

>   Eating foods high in oil, red meat (e.g. goat, beef, pork) and dairy (e.g. milk, butter, cream)

>    A diet that is low in  fruits & vegetables

Prevention

Prevention

Many risk factors cannot be changed, such as age, ethnic group, or family history. However, you may reduce your chances of prostate cancer through:

1. A diet rich in vegetables and fruits;

2. Being physically active;

3. Achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight

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Detect Prostate Cancer Early

Detect Prostate Cancer Early

With early detection and treatment, prostate cancer can be easily treated.

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Screen for Prostate Cancer

Screening for Prostate Cancer

Screening is a test (or series of tests) to detect cancer, or other diseases, in people who have no symptoms

Why screen? It can help find cancers in an early stage when they more treatable.

There are two screening tests for prostate cancer: Prostate-Specific  Antigen (PSA) Test & the Digital Rectum Exam (DRE)

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The PSA Test measures the level of Prostate-Specific Antigens in the blood.

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)

Prostate Specific Antigen is a protein produced in the prostate. High levels of PSA may indicate the presence of cancer.

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Digital Rectal Exam (DRE)

A DRE is a physical test done to check for any enlargement or growths (including cancerous tumors) in the prostate.

Very quick and shouldn’t cause pain.

Screening

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DRE Demonstration

What If Your Screening Results are abnormal?

What If Your Screening Results are abnormal?

You may be referred to take a prostate biopsy.

Prostate Biopsy is a procedure in which tissue is removed from the prostate, which is examined to determine whether there is a problem with the prostate. It can be used to diagnose prostate cancer.

Prostate Biopsy

Limitations to Screening

Limitations to Screening

Neither the PSA or the DRE are 100% accurate. Abnormal results do not always indicate cancer, and normal results cannot rule out cancer completely.

A PSA level can be increased by several factors other than prostate cancer, such as:

1,  Increasing age,

2, Ejaculation,

3, Certain medication that raise testosterone in the body.

4, Riding a bicycle

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Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) – enlargement of the prostate. It does NOT lead to prostate cancer.

Presents some of the same symptoms as prostate cancer, such as trouble starting & stopping urination.

Occurs in almost all men as they age.

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Prostatitis

Prostatitis

Prostatitis refers to an infection of the prostate. It can also be inflammation with no sign of infection.

It does not raise your risk of prostate cancer.

Can affect men of all ages

Most common symptom:

    repeated urinary tract

    infections

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Other Limitations to Screening

Other Limitations to Screening

If cancer is found, neither test can tell how likely the cancer is to grow and spread.

other limitations

Consequences of Delayed Detection & Presentation

Consequences of Delayed Detection &  Presentation 

By the time most Nigerian men go to the hospital, the cancer is at an advanced state (Eke, 2002). The advanced stage is also called metastatic or secondary prostate cancer.

The cancer has spread from the prostate to other parts of the body, mostly the bones & lymph nodes.

At this point, there is no cure.

A man can have prostate cancer for years without symptoms. If he waits until he has serious ailments before going to the hospital, it may be too late.

Some signs of late-stage prostate cancer may include anemia, fatigue, bowel problems, pain, broken bones, eating problems, as well as the aforementioned symptoms.

consequences of delay
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In a research study done at University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, over 90% of their prostate cancer patients over a 14-year period had late-stage cancer (Eke, 2002)

In a separate UPTH study, 70% of the patients died within 5 years of their diagnoses (Ekeke et al., 2012)

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What do you need to know?

What do you need to know?

Black men are more likely to have more aggressive forms of prostate cancer.

 

However….

Prostate cancer is not always life threatening.

In the early stages, prostate cancer often has no signs or symptoms.

What Can You Do ?

What if I am diagnosed with prostate cancer?

There are a number of treatment options, depending on your overall health, how far the cancer has spread, & how fast it is progressing.

Treatment Options

1.Watchful Waiting & Frequent Checks

      Being regularly monitored with blood tests, DREs, and ultrasounds to see whether the cancer is growing.

     Treatment can start if cancer is growing or getting worse.

2.Limited or Extensive Surgery

     Prostatectomy – removal of the prostate

     Orchiectomy – removal of the testicles

     Trans-urethral resection of the prostate (TURP) – removing the inner part of the prostate.

Treatment Options

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3.Irradiation

High-energy waves are used to kill cancer cells.

4.Drugs

5.New approaches – High Tech Procedures

     E.g. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

Things to Do

Things to Do

1.  From age 40, discuss with your doctor about prostate cancer screening. You should be screened once a year for the disease.

2.  Discuss with your doctor your known risk factors and what you can do to lower your risk.

3.  Make an appointment if you have any signs or symptoms for a check-up.

4.  Share the importance of prostate cancer screening with other men.

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